Tuesday, May 2, 2017

Restaurant Automation: When will robots replace cooks?

Moley Robotics cooking robot arm.
Much has been written about the effect that self-driving cars and trucks will have on the transportation industry.  About 3% of all American workers drive for a living. Tech companies like Google and Uber are developing fully autonomous cars, and major car companies (ie; BMW and GM) are deploying auto-pilot and driver-assist features which can control a car in more limited ways.  Knowing this, it is reasonable to expect these self-driving vehicles to be available to the masses within the next decade.  With driverless transportation, delivery companies like Fed Ex could save tremendous amounts of money on labor if their trucks could make deliveries without a human driver. Further, drivers who shuttle passengers from parking lots to the airport could essentially be replaced with self-driving busses, and Domino’s Pizza would substantially raise their bottom line by delivering pizzas with a self-driving cars or drones.

The US Department of Labor shows that, since the Great Recession, labor costs nationally are rising. Over the past ten years, US non-farm related labor costs have increased by 12%. In fact, accounting firm BDO recently reported that restaurant labor costs are increasing faster than average due to “Intense competition for employees, coupled with overtime regulations, health care costs and increases in the minimum wage…”

There are four things a business can do when faced with higher labor costs. First, businesses can simply idle and absorb the increased cost while decreasing its profit margin. Next, businesses can increase menu prices and hope their customers will pay these increased prices rather than visit a less expensive restaurant. Third, businesses can find savings elsewhere like sourcing and purchasing less expensive materials. Lastly, businesses can find ways to use less labor by either increasing the productivity of existing workers or by automating some of the work formerly performed by people.

Restaurants have small margins, tons of competition and generally need to provide an excellent product in order to compete.  Will automation help restaurants reduce costs? Or will new automated food service options disrupt the traditional restaurant business?

Perhaps since the invention of the car, and until just a couple of years ago, offering delivery from a restaurant was a labor-intensive proposition. In-house delivery drivers were standard I-9 employees for whom the restaurant would pay payroll taxes, unemployment benefits, mileage reimbursement and shift meals. A restaurant delivering hot wings on Super Bowl Sunday may not have enough drivers and the day after may lose money even while having just one driver scheduled.

Postmates, Uber Eats and other similar services use the internet to connect people who want to make some extra money using their own car with the restaurant who needs its food delivered. By creating a large network of people with some clever computer coding the number of drivers can increase and decrease as needed. An Uber driver could drop you off from the airport for one trip and then pick up your Pad Thai delivery on the next.  With enough drivers on the network it just becomes about proximity. The restaurant pays a fee to Uber, but for that fee, no longer needs to employ a delivery driver, pay the drivers benefits, gas, or shift meal costs.

Postmates and Uber are now using their network of drivers to create a more efficient way of delivering restaurant meals, but this is just the beginning. Uber imagines a future where a restaurant delivery may be completed by an Uber-owned, self-driving car or, perhaps when you’re not using it, your own self-driving car backs out of your garage and makes deliveries for which you are compensated. If you already do a great deal of delivery service and are worried about the coming need to buy and maintain a fleet of airborne delivery drones, don’t worry! Uber and Amazon both have plans to offer this as a service as well.

How will other aspects of the restaurant business be automated? Most of the 600,000 restaurants in the US and Canada manufacture and serve food in much the same way as they have since the 1940s. Raw materials are delivered through the back door. Prep cooks slice and dice the food. Cooks mix and heat the prepped food. In the front of house, waiters or cashiers take the orders and serve the food. 

Will the existing restaurants add automation or will they be replaced by new, automated food service?  Currently a number of food service concepts are in development which are built around some type of robotics or automation.




Momentum Machines in San Francisco is a somewhat secretive company which is developing a burger-making machine. Business Insider has reported that Momentum Machines is opening a brick and mortar restaurant in San Francisco to test and use this new technology. The device is said to be able to customize cooking temp, toppings, buns and all the parameters needed to serve burgers in a restaurant. Will they serve coffee too?

Momentum Machines Burger Machine

Statista reported that, on average, every coffee shop in the US employs 9.7 people which is up slightly from ten years ago when the number was 9.5 people. Globally, Starbucks employs about eight people per store.










Café X is a robotics company which has raised about $5.1 million dollars to develop what they call a Robotic Café. The first Café X was also launched in San Francisco this year. Using Clover organic milk and Pete’s Coffee, Café X is not like the coffee machine at the hospital. A robotic arm interacts with various machines to make about 120 coffee drinks per hour. Each Café X employs one person to answer questions and promote the café. Limited additional labor is required to clean and stock the machine.














Zume Pizza in Mountain View California uses robotic arms to top and sauce pizza dough. Now, they are working on technology to automate the entire pizza prep and baking process. If you order from Zume, your pizza will leave the restaurant raw and be baked in an oven on the delivery truck. With a very cool use of GPS technology, the oven switches on and begins baking when the truck is designated to reach your address within the time it takes to bake the pizza.  Your pizza arrives hot out of the oven regardless of traffic or how busy the restaurant is.



Café X, Momentum and Zume are technology companies that are also building their own food and beverage brands.  This is the new wave of automation in the restaurant industry. So, when will you be able to buy a robot for your kitchen?

If your restaurant menu has thirty items on it, with the current technology used for Zume Pizza or Momentum Machines, you would need nearly thirty machines to automate your kitchen. There are just too many variations in products, recipes, and item locations for robots to be effective in a commercial kitchen.







Moley Robotics in London is a company taking steps to deliver a robot chef to the home. 3D cameras film a chef cooking a dish. Then, multi-jointed robotic arms with hands duplicate the motion of the chef to reproduce the recipe. They believe this technology has a commercial application in the future.



Many restaurants have an industrial food processor called a Robot Coup. This machine can be used for mixing, chopping, and making soups. It is not a robot, but it may owe its name to its slight resemblance to R2D2 from Star Wars. When thinking of robotic automation in restaurants perhaps the developers of Robot Coup were a bit prescient. We are certainly a very long way from seeing machines that can replace line cooks, bartenders or even prep cooks working in full service restaurants. However, we may be closer to a future where restaurants will own appliances with robotics which can be programmed. Imagine a prep cook taking a box of potatoes from the walk-in and putting them on a prep table. Some robotic arms may be attached to the table which will then begin peeling and slicing the potatoes for french fries. Once the robot has completed cutting the fries, the cook places a box of green beans in reach of the arms and the arms will peel off the end before moving on to cleaning shrimp, slicing limes or any other repetitive task. Perhaps another set of robotic arms could be placed on the line making some simple high volume dishes.  Like the Robot Coup, the robot would be an appliance used by the cooks to increase productivity.


Will the future of the restaurant industry be like what we have today augmented with automation or will restaurants change and be built around automation? Will traditional restaurants find a competitive advantage in their use of real people or will guests favor the less expensive choices provided by automated restaurants? Will new tools be available to full service restaurants which will allow them to replace workers with machines completely? All we know is that it seems we will see more technology companies entering the restaurant space using new machines and tools to create and serve food using less labor. Beyond that all we know for sure is robots in restaurants will know how to use knives.

Friday, March 3, 2017

A Chefsheet blog about undocumented workers.

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Please enjoy our latest:

A Chefsheet blog about undocumented workers.

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How undocumented workers work in the restaurant business:

Most countries have some restriction on an immigrants’ ability to take a job and earn an income. US Citizens can apply for a twelve-month holiday work visa in only five countries; Singapore, New Zealand, Australia, South Korea and Ireland. Without special circumstances, US Citizens cannot immediately work in any other country. Further, US Citizens are only permitted to work in Mexico if 1) they are employed by a US-based company or 2) it is for a Mexican company that can prove there is not a qualified Mexican citizen available for the job.

The US will issue about 65,000 work visas to citizens of other countries each year, affording anyone in the world a chance to obtain a US work visa. The rub is that the US issues the same number of working visas to citizens of each country regardless of the number of applicants or the country’s population. What this means is that the same number of working visas are to be issued to citizens of Iceland (population 332,000) as to citizens of Mexico (population 123,000,000). In 2016 about 4,225 working visas were issued to Mexican citizens.

For those who work in restaurants, the notion of co-workers being illegal immigrants is probably very familiar. In many ways our government has created a default system to normalize and accommodate the 11,000,000 illegal immigrants living and working in the United States.

The restaurant business creates many of the entry level and low skilled jobs in the country. Many jobs in a restaurant, although often physically difficult, are easy to learn and require little or no previous training or experience. Perhaps one of the great virtues of the restaurant industry are the opportunities for advancement for restaurant workers. Most restaurant managers and Chefs started in entry level positions as dishwashers, prep cooks, bussers or porters. Throughout the history of the US, generations of immigrants have been drawn to the restaurant business.

Currently there are about 42,000,000 immigrants living in the US. Of this, according to Pew, roughly 11,000,000 or 26% are here illegally. An illegal immigrant is someone who is either in the US without a proper visa or who is working in the US with a visa which does not allow for employment.

According to The National Review, about 60% of illegal immigrants first entered the US legally but overstayed their visa. The remaining 40% crossed into the US illegally over a border or across an ocean.

In the US, an immigrant is 1.4% more likely to be employed in leisure and hospitality (the hotel and restaurant business) than a non-immigrant. For every fourteen restaurant workers, ten are immigrants. About 18% of restaurant positions (including dishwashers, cooks, bussers, bakers and bar backs) are illegal immigrants.

For those who do not work in the restaurant industry, just how illegal immigrants are employed is a bit misunderstood. People may believe that employers seek out illegal workers by offering sub legal pay or subpar working conditions in exchange for employment. Some may imagine illegal workers being paid in cash so both the employee and the employer avoiding taxes. In practice employers often have no direct knowledge of the legal status of their employees, and illegal workers are afforded all the same protections and benefits by the law as any other worker. An illegal workers’ pay check is taxed like every employee, and both the employer and the illegal worker make tax payments.

Federal law requires that employees complete a form I-9 to verify work eligibility before being hired. The form I-9 requires the employer verify that they have seen current documents which would substantiate the workers right to work in the US. The large number of illegal workers in the US creates a market for counterfeit documents, fake social security cards and fake Permanent Residency Cards (also known as Green Cards). These high quality counterfeits can be impossible to distinguish from a real ID. Furthermore, should an employer suspect that they are being presented with a false ID which results in not hiring that person, the employer could be liable, in the event they are wrong, for the lost wages suffered when the worker is denied employment.

Most illegal immigrants are hired to work using some form of barrowed or counterfeit documentation. They are then afforded all the same benefits and responsibilities for taxes as any other employee.

E-Verify is an online employment verification system created in 1997 by the US Department of Health and Human Services. E-Verify will check a potential employees Social Security number to insure it is valid and matches the employees name. The system is voluntary in most states. Federal law requires that federal employment is verified and anyone contracting with the federal government must use E-Verify. In addition, some states like Arizona and Alabama require employers within the state to use E-Verify.

California passed a law in 2011 preventing cities and counties within California from requiring employers to use E-Verify. In effect, it is illegal to legally require the use of E-Verify in California.

Throughout the country, employers can use E-Verify if they choose to, and the system has shown itself to be effective and accurate. Again it is not required.

As restaurants have a high concentration of immigrant labor (and often many illegal immigrants) fears of immigration raids are both an old and new concern. In a 1980s work place, restaurant immigration raids were not uncommon, particularly in California. Officers from ICE would arrive at a restaurant and begin asking for employees’ identification and to review the restaurant’s form I9 file. The George W. Bush and Obama administrations, under pressure from business groups, largely ended the practice of random work place raids.

ICE may still raid a business, but it will usually be for a larger cause. In October of 2016 four Buffalo area Mexican restaurants were raided by Immigration. In this case it is alleged that the owner of all four restaurants was not paying sales or employment taxes and was deliberately hiring undocumented workers. The recent raid, and arrest of fifty-five people working for a group of Chinese Restaurants in Mississippi was similar to the Buffalo raids. In both cases it is alleged that the restaurant owners were purposefully hiring illegal workers, paying the workers in cash, not paying payroll taxes and also not paying forward sales taxes. Although the Mississippi raid happened after the inauguration of President Trump, the investigation had been ongoing for almost a year. Both cases appear to have been instigated by a complaint to law enforcement.

If asked, employers are required to provide federal officers all copies of their employee I-9s. The law does allow the employer three days to comply. Consider keeping a single file with your I-9s in a location away from your business. If asked to provide these forms you can ask for the time to collect them from the other location which may allow time for some review for mistakes. There is no legal requirement to make copies of an employees’ ID or Social Security Card. You will also not be asked to provide the entire employment files. Keeping the I-9s separated from your other employment documents will prevent the occasion of providing officers with documents they are not asking to see.

Many illegal workers file tax returns, and the IRS is prevented by law from reporting an illegal worker to any other agency. The worker will often have provided a fake Social Security number to their employer. The employer pays payroll taxes and make deposits using this fake number. Come tax time, the worker will request an ITIN, (an individual Tax Payer Identification Number) from the IRS in their own name. Income from W2s and any other tax reporting done with the fake Social Security number is then declared on the tax return using the workers real ITIN number. The IRS is aware of both numbers. If a refund is due, it will be forwarded to the worker using the name and address from the ITIN number.

The lack of a national requirement for employers to use E-Verify has created a system in which illegal workers can be employed. As this system is not formalized and depends on a lack of law enforcement it is reasonable to conclude that this system is not stable and likely will change in the years to come.

CHEFSHEET CARES!
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Friday, January 27, 2017

Why your vendors loan you money.


Please enjoy our latest blog post:
Why your vendors give you credit and how to use it to your restaurants advantage.

Check out past blog posts at http://chefsheet.blogspot.com/

“Remember that credit is money” - Benjamin Franklin.

In life we usually pay for things at the point of sale. Think about it. It would be really weird to leave the supermarket with your groceries and be expected only to mail a check for the purchase sometime in the future. Imagine walking out of the Apple Store with a brand new laptop while leaving only a signature as a form of payment. Of course, you can use a credit card to pay for the laptop later, but in the case of credit cards, the bank is providing the credit. In contrast, when your vendors leave food, beverage and supplies at your restaurant, you are not expected to pay for a period of time usually ranging from 10-45 days. In essence, the vendor placed the product on a truck, drove the truck to your restaurant, unloaded everything and drove away without being paid. Why and how do your vendors extend credit, and what does trade credit really mean for your business?

First, there are some technical reasons why vendors provide trade credit. Paying for product on delivery is difficult. For instance, credit card fees are expensive so either checks would need to be cut or cash would need to be ready for the drivers to collect. In addition, giving cash to the driver presents all kinds of security issues. These technical issues aside, the main reason your vendors provide you with credit is so you can buy product from them when you do not have the money up front to pay for it. Restaurants are largely a cash flow business. Companies that supply restaurants know that they will sell more product if they extend credit to the buyer and allow them time to pay for it. Restaurant vendors also know that if they do not extend credit to their clients, then someone else will.

There are numerous benefits of gaining trade credit for your restaurant. For example, let’s say a steak, which you paid $10 for, was delivered to your restaurant on Monday and needs to be paid for in thirty days. When you sell the steak on Tuesday for $30, you will have that $30 in cash without paying anything for the product. So, for the next twenty nine days you can use that $10 you owe for the steak on anything else you need; payroll, insurance, rent.

Using trade credit to manage cash flow is part of the restaurant business. This is why the vendors extend credit, and it is how the business (for most operators) works. The challenge is to be sure that the use of trade credit is not obscuring larger problems within your organization. Restaurants can run up very large trade credit balances. Your financial reporting should include a balance sheet showing your short term liabilities with a section for “Accounts Payable.” Regardless of your P&L, your cash flow or how you feel about your restaurants’ financials, your short term liabilities (and how they change over time) is perhaps the most important indication of how your business is performing. You want this number to be stable or, if your business is seasonal, to reflect the seasonal swings. If your short term liabilities are growing, and it is not an off-season or a slow time of year, this may be a problem. If, at the end of the year, your short term liabilities are greater than they were at the start, there is a problem.

In general, your credit relationship with your vendors will be in-part based on a written agreement and in-part based on your relationship with the vendor. When you begin using a vendor, you will often be asked to complete a credit application. The credit application is really two things; 1) an application detailing the business which the vendor will review and 2) a contract spelling out how the vendor will be paid. In a business as kinetic as a restaurant, things like a credit applications are often done on the fly. It is important to be cautious and thorough when completing credit applications and to make sure you know what you are signing. It is also crucial that you are clear as to who within your organization is allowed to sign these credit applications.

Perhaps the most critical part of any credit application is the continuing personal guarantee. Most small restaurant groups are formed as a limited liability entity. When you sign a personal guarantee, you are agreeing to be personally liable for the debt that the business does not pay. It’s in your best interest to ignore this personal guarantee section until/if the vendor requires it. Some vendors will insist on a personal guarantee, some won’t but may grant longer payment terms with a guarantee, and some will not notice. The question you need to answer is what is the benefit of signing vs the benefit of not signing. Your restaurant may end up being passed through five generations of your family. It may grow to 100 units and go public or it may flourish for just another 10 or 20 years. How much is your accounts payable now and how much will it be in 10 or 20 years? If the business closes, vendors with a signed personal guarantee will have the right to collect any remaining trade balances from the signer personally. You must ask yourself, “what is this eventuality worth to me?”

A vendors’ credit application may also contain language allowing your vendors to maintain a first priority position or file a UCC1 statement. What this means is that your vendor can file a notice with your state’s Secretary of State declaring they have a lien on your assets. A UCC1 works in much the same way a home lenders position is secured. If you ever wish to sell your business (or assets of the business) a title company would first need to obtain a release from the vendor. These agreements can be hard to notice in a large credit application. We recommend you look for words like “security” and “first priority” throughout the application. Again, consider the value/risk of signing such an agreement.

Beyond the credit application, the vendors’ invoices will often spell out other parts of your formal agreement such as interest charges on late payments (which could jump as high as 18% a year). Many invoices allow the vendor to add interest the day the invoice is late. To keep track, consider adding a line item to your financial statement for “Trade Interest.” You may be paying more for vendor interest than you would imagine.
Your relationships with your vendors are very important. Vendors need to sell product as much as you do and are usually flexible if you maintain close communication. For example, if a vendor adds interest to an invoice, try asking them to remove it and then ask that they not do that again. If you’ve worked with a specific vendor for years, perhaps they would accept a letter from you requesting to withdraw a personal guarantee. If a vendor set you up with fifteen day terms, ask them to let you pay in thirty days and explain why this would benefit your business/relationship. Vendors want stability. What scares a vendor is when a restaurant consistently pays their bills on time and then suddenly skips a check without notice or a conversation. Even if things get a bit ‘unpredictable’ for you, maintaining the personal relationship will help. A vendor with fifteen day terms and 2% interest may let you pay in forty five days with no interest if you explain your situation and try to work out a compromise. However, never forget that whenever the vendor decides that the personal relationship is not working out, they can quickly and easily revert to the written agreement; at which point you are thirty days behind and owe a lot of interest.

Trade credit is a powerful tool. It can allow you to make payroll during the slow times and prevent you from needing to write twenty checks a day. Remember that credit agreements can and should be negotiated, you should be cautious with personal guarantees, and never judge your businesses’ performance by cash flow alone.

CHEFSHEET CARES!
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A new wage for a new year 2016

And then the holidays were over… Happy New Year from Chefsheet.


In this newsletter we will discuss the current changes in the minimum wage as well as the forces that are helping to bring about these changes. Most restaurateurs understand that increasing menu prices cannot simply pay for increased labor costs. As restaurant prices go up, people choose to order less expensive items, order less in general or just eat out less. For many, dining out is a luxury; it is not something a consumer must spend money on at any price.   

As your labor costs increase, know that Chefsheet was designed to help you reduce your cost of goods and increase your bottom line. With Chefsheet, you can see which of your menu items are the most and least profitable and how much you should be charging for them. Track your vendor prices and keep your vendors accountable for what they are charging you. Take comprehensive, clean, monthly or weekly inventories to know your true costs as they are happening. For help with any of this or any other Chefsheet features, contact support to schedule a demo or training.

With the start of 2016 many states and some cities will see an increase in minimum wage. Almost everyone who has a job in the United States must be paid at least the federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. Without discussing tip credits, the only people who can legally make less than the minimum wage are business owners, those who are self-employed, those covered by a union contract and/or people who are interning and receiving college credit for the work they are performing. If you own your own restaurant or bar, you are free to make less than the minimum wage.

Twenty-nine states have passed laws increasing the minimum wage above the federal minimum wage. A county or city may set up its own minimum wage provided it is equal to or greater than the state minimum wage. The federal minimum wage was last increased in 2009. Many state and local minimum wage laws have automatic annual increases. These increases may be scheduled in advance or may be indexed to inflation. Inflation indexes are generally set to the Consumer Price Index or CPI. The CPI tracks the prices of items such as food, energy and clothing in a geographical area. Indexed minimum wages will generally increase annually by the same amount as the CPI for the area increased in the previous year. Most indexed minimum wages can only go up or remain flat. This means that during an extreme recession or depression, when price growth is negative, the minimum wage can not go down.

A tip credit is a means of calculating a tipped employees tip income as part of the income needed to meet the minimum hourly wage. Federal law says that tipped employees must also be paid $2.13 per hour. Many states have two minimums, one for tipped employees and another for non-tipped employees. Seven states do not allow tips to be considered in minimum wage. In a state with no tip credit, a waiter making $40 per hour in tips will still be paid the state minimum wage, whatever it may be. For the purpose of taxing income all states and the federal government combine tips and hourly pay. Both the employees and the employers pay payroll taxes based on the combined earnings. All benefits such was workers compensation, disability and unemployment are also based on the total amount of tips and hourly income.

Since 1938 there have been different times when the minimum wage has been increased both federally and at the state level. Over the past couple of years there has been a great deal of energy around increasing the minimum wage with Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York and many smaller cities all raising their minimum wage. San Francisco first divorced its minimum wage from the California minimum wage with an increase in 2004. The increases over the past few years largely began in Seattle.

In New York, Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles and many other cities and states, the primary group midwifing these minimum wage increase is The Service Employees International Union or SEIU. SEUI represents just below two million workers in fields ranging from health care to restaurants and hotels. SEIU, with partnership from other unions and community groups, funded the campaigns to raise the minimum wage in pretty much every city and state that has seen a recent increase. SEIU is a funder of the ‘Fight for Fifteen’ group and spent about $10 Million to organize employee walkouts at New York City fast food restaurants. 

Members of SEIU are very unlikely to be affected by the minimum wage increases regardless of which industry they work in. Unionized restaurant workers are mostly found in hotels, convention centers and large venues. Most union restaurant workers already make more than the new minimum wages. Further, many union contracts are exempt from elements of US labor laws which means that a union worker could be paid less than the minimum wage in some cases. 

Why are SEIU and other labor unions so interested in increasing the minimum wage? First, a rising sea lifts all boats. If non-union workers are paid more it follows that unions will be able to negotiate better contracts for their members. Also, for a long time, unionized restaurants have been at a disadvantage to independent, non-union restaurants. A unionized hotel bar needs to charge more than the independent bar on the corner as the hotel bar has much higher labor and benefit costs. Most understand that airports, stadiums and hotels charge a lot more for the same product then one would pay at a 'regular' restaurant. For SEIU’s part, they state that their members believe in bettering the working conditions of others, regardless of if they are in a union. 

A few things to know and consider:

Any wage increase is only to be paid from the date it went into effect. If your payroll does not start on the 1st of January, make sure you are calculating your minimum wage employees pay based on the effective rate before an increase multiplied the hours before the increase plus the effective rate after the increase multiplied the hours worked after the increase. Minimum wage employees may have two pay rates on a single check for the pay period that covers the New Year.

Is there another way? The tips paid to waiters may represent an amount of about 18% of your restaurants sales. Currently all of this money is going to just the tipped employees. Some restaurants in high minimum wage markets have already begun switching to a ‘service charge model’ where the guests are asked to or are required to pay a service charge so the cooks and servers are all paid higher wages. The challenges with a service charge model may be attracting front of house talent and committing to a higher rate all for your employees all the time.

Automation and outsourcing – The restaurant business is a pretty analogue business, but there may be ways to accomplish daily tasks more efficiently. There are answering services, services that can take reservations and orders online, bookkeeping services that process your books off shore and more. Every restaurant is different but there are ways to downsize labor if necessary.

What to expect in the future – Local and state increases in minimum wage in cities such as San Francisco, Seattle, Los Angeles, New York and other places where these increases have passed are popular with the voters and the public. Many large cities have become very expensive places in which to live. Politicians and voters see people struggling with higher rents, higher home prices and generally higher costs of living and wish to do something, perhaps anything, to help. Options such as increasing the minimum wage are popular as they cost the government very little, do not require tax increases or money to be transferred from other government programs, etc. Following a successful minimum wage increase in San Francisco, SEIU supported other initiatives such as paid sick leave, fixed scheduling to avoid last minute changes to a workers schedule, employer sponsored health care and other legal mandates that offer new benefits to employees. 

While higher minimum wage may help many Americans, it will affect the efficiency and bottom line of restaurants everywhere. Are you ready?

See how Chefsheet can help you organize, plan and save in 2016!